[Reading Skills] 27. 효율적인 읽기

이 칼럼을 읽는 독자들 중에 'Opinion & Fact'라는 단어를 모르거나 두 가지를 구분하지 못하는 사람은 없을 것이다.

그런데도 이런 제목의 칼럼을 쓰는 이유는 글을 좀 더 효율적으로 읽는 방법을 알려주기 위해서이다.

글을 읽는 이유는 주제,즉 글쓴이의 의견(opinion)을 이해하기 위해서다.

사실(fact)은 글쓴이의 의견을 보충 설명해 주기 위해 사용된다.

따라서 사실(fact)을 건너뛰고 의견(opinion)을 나타내는 부분을 빨리 찾아서 읽는다면 글의 주제를 좀 더 빨리 그리고 명확하게 찾을 수 있다.

이럴 때 다음에 제시된 '의견을 나타내는 신호어(signals)'를 알아두면 크게 도움이 될 것이다.

의견을 나타내는 신호어

인용문,최상급,연결어(furthermore, beside, nonetheless, likewise, however-대조를 나타내는 말)

Verb : propose, suggest, insist, urge, think, believe, wish, hope-의견을 나타내는 말

Adjective : sure, certain, important, necessary, essential, impossible-가치나 판단을 나타내는 말

Auxiliary : must, have to, should, ought to, need, can, will-가능성이나 짐작을 나타내는 말

위 글에서 살펴본 신호어들에 유의하며 다음 글을 읽고 요지를 찾아보자.


A basic assumption of Confucian ethics is that the moral life is possible only in the context of particularistic personal ties. For the general population, the most important relationship by far is the family. As Ruiping Fan notes, "Familial relationships are so important that they assume three out of five basic human relations (emphasized by) Confucianism. It is a Confucian moral requirement that one should take one's family as an autonomous unit from the rest of society, flourishing or suffering as a whole".

Within the family context, individuals owe each other certain obligations. Most important, economically productive adults must care for needy family members. This obligation is quite literally "beyond choice". From the political standpoint, as Mencius points out, it means that the government should try to ensure that economically productive members of families have sufficient means of support "on the one hand, for the care of parents, and, on the other hand, for the support of wife and children". The value of caring for children is widely shared in other cultures, but Confucianism places special emphasis on filial piety, the care for elderly parents. Quite simply, we are not free to neglect elderly parents. As Confucius said: Lord Meng Yi asked about filial piety. The Master said: "Never disobey."

As Fan Chi was driving him in his chariot, the Master told him: "Meng Yi asked about filial piety and I replied: 'Never disobey.'" Fan Chi said: "What does that mean?" The Master said: "When your parents are alive, serve them according to ritual. When they die, bury them according to ritual, make sacrifices to them according to ritual."

Filial piety is not simply a matter of providing material comfort to aged parents:

Zixia asked about filial piety. The Master said: "It is the attitude that matters. If young people merely offer their services when there is work to do, or let their elders drink and eat when there is wine and food, how could this ever pass as filial piety?"

The only real test of filial piety, Confucius seems to imply, is the willingness to serve elderly parents even when this requires sacrificing one's own interests. Confucius does allow for exceptions in extreme circumstances, but in most cases people must subordinate their own desires for the sake of serving their elderly parents.

Filial piety is also meant to take precedence over competing moral obligations. Mencius condemns those who are "selfishly attached [to] wife and children" instead, people should be particularly mindful of the "greatest" duty of all, the duty to one's own parents . And both Confucius and Mencius argue that care for elderly parents should take priority over public duties in cases of conflict.

In short, Confucians argue that productive adults have an obligation to care for needy family members, with special emphasis upon the need to care for elderly parents. Barring exceptional circumstances, these duties have priority over both (narrowly-defined) individual self-interest and competing moral obligations. These duties have been implemented in various ways by East Asian states, but I will discuss one means the practice of joint family ownership that contrasts with the liberal emphasis on individual ownership of property.


△ Mencius : 맹자

△ Confucius : 공자

△ Lord Meng Yi : 맹의자

△ Fan Chi : 번지

△ Zixia : 자하

요지:부모와 자식간에 지켜야 할 인륜적 의무가 공적인 의무보다 중요하다.

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