[Reading Skills] 21. 단락의 전개방식 - 원인과 결과형

이번 호에서 다룰 문장은 Newsweek International의 온라인 기사에서 발췌한 것이다.

우리나라 여성의 지위에 관한 글이다.

여성의 사회적 지위가 오늘날에 이르기까지의 원인을 구체적으로 다루고 있는 글로서,'원인과 결과형(Cause and effect)'의 전개 방식으로 분류할 수 있다.

전형적인 원인과 결과형(Cause and effect)의 글에서는 둘 이상의 사건이 원인 또는 결과의 관계를 갖는다.

그런데 원인과 결과가 동시에 일어나는 것은 불가능하므로 어느 정도의 시간적인 순서 유형을 갖는 것이 일반적인 특징이다.

전문이 길어 핵심 내용만 수록했으니 나머지 부분은 원전을 찾아 읽어보기 바란다.

주어진 글에 대한 지시문을 읽고, 다음 지시사항에 따라 이번 호의 글을 분석해 보라.

<지시 사항>

1.각 단락의 주제문을 찾고, 원인과 결과에 해당하는 것을 찾아보자.

2.글 전체의 전개 방식을 생각해 보자.


After en during decades of discrimination, South korean women are surging into positions of power and influence.

By B. J. Lee_Newsweek International

[1] There are several reasons for the dramatic rise in female fortunes, but one of the most important is the explosion of grassroots civic activism that's swept South Korea over the past two decades. Women played an important role in the democracy movement that toppled the country's dictators in the 1980s, and since then they've done their best to keep feminism in the forefront of the broader push for change. As the Uri Party's leader, President Roh Moo Hyun has made gender equality a powerful part of his crusade against Korea's old elite.

[2] Another catalyst is education. In the 1970s only 25 percent of South Korean women entered college. Now the number has risen to 72 percent, the highest level in the world. The country's women-only universities are especially influential. Ewha Women's University, with 150,000 alumnae, is the world's largest-followed closely by Sookmyung Women's University, the second largest. Both are more than a century old. Supporters argue that the women-only atmosphere is conducive to confidence-building as well as good academics. "In Korean coed universities, female students are treated differently from male students," says Ewha president Shin In Ryung. "But all-women universities teach females how to compete fairly and squarely with others, something they need in the real world." More than half of the honor and top-grade students at universities are women, although they account for less than half the total number of students.

[3] There has been resistance to some of the changes, especially when reformers took aim at the centuries-old hoju (head of family) system, which banned women from legally representing their households. Under the practice, family members could be represented only by the officially recognized "head of the house"-invariably a man. All members of a family had to bear his surname. Even aged widows were registered under the names of their eldest sons in government-issued family documents, and the children of divorced mothers were not recognized as the children of their stepfathers. Some male lawmakers fought to retain hoju, but the reformers prevailed. Under the new system "each individual will be able to represent herself or himself," says Youn Young Sook, a director-general at the Ministry of Gender Equality, which was created in 2001. Youn says this and other reforms, such as a 1996 law requiring that 30 percent of all government agency employees be women, put South Korea far ahead of Japan and other Asian countries. "By nature, Koreans are more open to changes than their neighboring Asians are."

[4] Glass ceilings still abound. The high-profile appointments of women to select government positions are still more the exception than the rule. Midlevel government positions continue to be monopolized by men. And despite the growing presence of women in business (especially in knowledge-intensive, New Economy-style companies), they're virtually absent from the executive floors of leading South Korean corporations. Women on average are paid 64 percent of what men are paid-and among all women eligible for corporate managerial positions, only 50 percent have jobs, lower than the OECD's average of 56 percent. Korea's feminist movement, say critics, still tends to rely excessively on top-down reforms by intellectuals and political leaders-and not enough on ordinary women lobbying for change from below. "Korea has good systems and laws for greater female power," says Moon You Gyung, a researcher at the Korea Women's Development Institute. "But for the systems and laws to work, women themselves have to change their mind-set first."


이제 <지시사항>대로 글을 분석해 보자.

1.모든 단락의 첫 번째 문장이 주제문이고,전체 글의 주제(여성의 지위 향상) 원인을 예를 들어 설명하고 있다.

2.한국 사회에서 여성의 지위가 향상된 원인을 열거한 후 그에 따른 반발과 아직 남은 여성차별의 존재를 예시와 통계자료로 증명하고 있다.

원인과 결과 유형의 글에서는 두 개 이상의 원인이 하나의 결과를 유도하는 경우와 하나의 원인이 두 개 이상의 결과를 이끄는 경우가 있다.

이 글은 전자에 해당한다.

김기훈 대표 cedu@ceduenglish.com

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